Evolution and Early Distribution Taxonomy North American Red foxes British Red foxes Size Appearance and Colour Samson foxes Distribution Habitat Abundance Ageing and Longevity Mortality and Disability Parasites and Diseases Sexing Activity Dens/Earths and Resting Sites Senses Vision Hearing Smell Touch Territoriality and Home Range Predators Food and Feeding Types of prey consumed Prey switching The influence of age and sex on diet How much food?Hunting strategies and behaviour Killing to ‘excess’ and the storage of left-overs Breeding Biology Reproductive development The number of breeding vixens Mating and monogamy Gestation, birth and litter size Growth and development of the cubs Behaviour and Social Structure Live and let live: the evolution of group-living With a little help from my friends: ‘helpers’ in fox society Keeping order and knowing your place: the social hierarchy All in the name of fun: fox body language Nightly interactions Communication: something to shout about Interaction with Humans The fox in literature and film The emblematic fox Foxes held in high esteem: gods, devils and worship The fox as a resource: fur, meat and sport The verminous fox: foxes as pests Man’s best friend?Certain aspects of the natural history common to all deer (e.g.antler growth and formation, collisions with vehicles, chronic wasting disease) have been split from the individual overviews and placed into their own Q/A – this is partly to avoid repetition but also to allow more detailed coverage of the topics.
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A summary of the more general aspects of the biology, ecology and behaviour of Britain’s deer species can be found elsewhere on this site.
Taxonomy: Deer classification is a contentious subject, with disagreement over where the animals sit in relation to other mammals (namely whether or not they should be grouped with the whales and dolphins) as well as how many species and/or subspecies should be formally recognised.
The Red deer has a long history in Britain – one of only two native deer species in the UK, it’s a beast highly prized by hunters, naturalists, artists, poets and photographers alike.
Renowned Scottish artist Archibald Thorburn summed up the situation nicely in his 1920 book .” That which follows is a summary of Red deer natural history.