Hydroxyzine has also been used to potentiate the analgesia of opioids and to alleviate some of their side effects, such as itching, nausea, and vomiting.
Hydroxyzine preparations require a doctor's prescription. The drug is available in two formulations, the pamoate and the dihydrochloride or hydrochloride salts.
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There are at least four major neurotransmitters of the vestibular system involved in the "three neuron arc" between the vestibular hair cells and oculomotor nuclei that drives the vestibulocular reflex.
It was first synthesized by Union Chimique Belge in 1956 and was marketed by Pfizer in the United States later the same year, and is still in widespread use today.
Because of its antihistamine effects it can also be used for the treatment of severe cases of itching, hyperalgesia and motion sickness-induced nausea; it has also been used in some cases to relieve the effects of opioid withdrawal.
Even though it is an effective sedative, hypnotic, and anxiolytic, it shares virtually none of the abuse, dependence, addiction, and toxicity potential of other drugs used for the same range of therapeutic reasons.
Vistaril, Equipose, Masmoran, and Paxistil are preparations of the pamoate salt, while Atarax, Alamon, Aterax, Durrax, Tran-Q, Orgatrax, Quiess, and Tranquizine are of the hydrochloride salt.
Other drugs related to hydroxyzine are cyclizine, buclizine, and meclizine, and they share all or most of the benefits, indications, contraindications, cautions, and side effects of hydroxyzine.