2-Phenoxyethanol (PE), a common volatile organic compound found in ballpoint inks, has been recognized for over a decade as a solvent that evaporates as ink ages.
More recently, investigations have focused on the solvent loss ratio of PE prior to and after heating.
Speckin ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of several actual case examinations in which accelerated aging was used to estimate the age of ball-point inks on questioned documents, All of the results described in this paper were admitted as evidence in court.
While the data presented does not satisfy the requirements for this to be a research paper, (actual cases rarely provide adequate known dated writings) the data shows that accelerated aging is an effective and reliable way to estimate the age of inks when known dated writings are not available for comparison with questioned inks.
Normalization was performed on the spectroscopic data before chemometric analysis.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and K-mean cluster analysis were used on the data to ascertain whether the blue ballpoint pen inks could be differentiated by their UV-Vis/UV-Vis NIR spectra.
The aging parameter used was the extent of extraction into a weak solvent (water:methanol =3:1) of a fluorescent Rhodamine-type dye found in this ink.
Developing and implementing a generally accepted procedure for the dating of ink found on documents using dynamic approaches has been a very formidable undertaking by forensic document examiners.
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The authors have collectively testified approximately 50 times over the last 10 years using accelerated aging to date inks.
Other private examiners have also testified to the results of accelerated aging.
The high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC).
Standard guide for test methods for forensic writing ink comparison.